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Bhutan Environment

Bhutan is rich in natural environment. Although small, it has a wide variety of animals and plants, thanks to its state policies and people’s way of life that conserve the environment.

The constitution of the country requires that at least 60 percent of the total land area be maintained under forest cover for all time to come. The country today boasts of 70.5 percent of forest cover. And close to 60 percent of the land area falls under 10 protected areas. Some 60 percent of plant species found in the eastern Himalayan region can be found in Bhutan. Bhutan is known to have some 300 species of medicinal plants and 46 species of rhododendrons.

Thanks to its cautious extraction of natural resources and strong conservation policies, the country is home to a number of endangered animals and birds, including the white-bellied heron and the black-necked crane. Today, Bhutan is home to 221 global endemic bird areas. So far, over 670 bird species have been recorded in the country. The number is expected to increase as new species are discovered.

Bhutan’s effort towards conservation of environment is best exemplified by the fact that its forest cover has increased over the years.

The conservation efforts of the state are complemented by the environmentally-conscious way of life of the Bhutanese people. The Bhutanese have lived in close harmony with nature for centuries which resulted in our respect for nature. Every mountain, hill, lake, or a spring, for example, is associated with a certain spirit. Doing any harm to any of these creations of nature is believed to provoke the wrath of the spirit concern which results in bad weather, ill-health, famine, or crop failure. Numerous such beliefs have helped the Bhutanese in harmony with nature.

Bhutan’s protection of the environment is best testified by her ban on mountaineering. Mountaineering has been banned in Bhutan since 2004 to protect the virgin peaks from pollution, waste, and defilement. The part of the reason for the ban on mountaineering is to protect the mountains from human defilements. Mountains in Bhutan are believed to be the citadels of gods and deities who, when treated with reverence, shower the valleys with timely rainfall (or snowfall), bountiful harvest, and peace and happiness. Bhutan believes in development without plundering the environment. It believes in passing down an undamaged environment complete with all its life forms to posterity. Development, Bhutan believes, should not be achieved at the cost of the natural environment and all forms of life that it supports. It’s based on the Buddhist belief that human beings can be only as peaceful and happy as the surrounding environment is clean and undisturbed.


About Bhutan

1. Culture
2. Religion
3. Environment
4. Gross National Happiness
5. Political System
6. National Symbols

  • a. National Flag
  • b. National Emblem
  • c. National Anthem
  • d. National Bird
  • e. National Animal
  • f. National Flower
  • g. National Anthem
  • h. National Tree
  • i. National Sport
  • j. General Information